gun alley stories

2. Olinda Creek Story


The Olinda Creek, the eastern boundary of Gun Alley has been a focal part of life in Lilydale since the first settlers arrived in the 1830s. It was the reason behind the establishment of the town as it was the ribbon of life for the community.

However, while the creek sustained life it also took life and created its own brand of destruction – typhoid outbreaks were common in the early days of settlement while later floods threatened life and damaged shops and homes.

Throughout its history the Shire of Lillydale grappled with ways of preventing the floods but most options were too expensive for it to contemplate. It was not until the Great Depression when government funds flowed through to local government for approved projects, that the shire finally had the money it needed to do the work so the levee bank was built.

It withstood numerous floods over the subsequent years, but by the 1960s new schemes were being discussed such as building a lake on the Olinda Creek to hold back the flood water.

It was not until Torrential Tuesday, September 18, 1984 when hundreds of thousands of dollars damage was caused to businesses in lower Main Street that the shire and the Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works worked together to create the Lillydale Lake. It was to be a recreational lake but more importantly a flood retarding basin able to control the flow of floodwater into the Olinda Creek just south of the township.

Finally, Lilydale was flood-proofed and confidence was restored in the value of retail businesses in the town.

Audio Introduction

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Olinda Creek Timeline

December 1863

The Yarra River flooded many properties in the valley and Melbourne.

July 1889

Severe flooding of lower Main Street saw water running through homes and businesses.


A large dam at a South Wandin sawmill collapsed after heavy rain causing a severe flood in lower Main Street, Lilydale.

June 1901

Four to five feet of water covered lower Main Street.

September 1918

The Olinda Creek recorded its highest flood in 27 years.

October 1923

Homes in John Street had more than two feet of water running through them.

October 1927

More heavy rain and flooding.

March 1931

Flood waters flowed through homes in John Street.

December 1934

The headline: Widespread flood havoc summed up the scene after flood waters again swept through town.

February 1937

Lillydale Shire began grappling with flooding and announced extensive work would begin to widen Olinda Creek.

October 1937

The works didn’t come in time to stop yet another flood.

July 1938

Levee banks along the Olinda creek were completed.

December 1938

New bridge across the Olinda Creek was completed and re-aligned.

July 1970

Hardy and John streets linked via a causeway across the Olinda Creek.

November 1977

The causeway across the Olinda Creek was formally gazetted as a road.

January 1984

Responsibility for drainage and water supply was transferred from Lillydale Council to the Melbourne Metropolitan Board of Works.

September 18, 1984

Torrential Tuesday. Eight businesses in lower Main Street suffered thousands of dollars damage. Ian Price Furnishing lost $60,000 worth of stock in the flood.

June 1985

Lillydale Shire and the MMBW start planning the construction of Lillydale Lake.

May 1988

Construction of Lillydale Lake began.

July 7, 1990

Lillydale Lake officially opened and flooding of Lilydale’s lower Main Street has become a thing of the past.

Olinda Creek: River of Life and Death

While the Olinda Creek provided water for residents, the lack of proper drainage and sewerage made the town ripe for the outbreak of fatal diseases and it wasn’t long coming.

One of the earliest recordings of death through disease is the Smith family. During October and November
1876, scarlet fever claimed the lives of three children – Mary E aged 9, Patrick 2 and Margaret 6.

Just nine years later, in 1887, the daily papers ran stories on the outbreak of typhoid fever in the town which then had a population of 300 people. This was the first reporting of the disease in the town.

There had been 37 cases of typhoid fever of which five were fatal. Five cases were admitted to either the Alfred or Melbourne Hospitals.

The outbreak started when a groom who had the disease moved to Lilydale with his wife. The man took ill and 16 other cases, all living on the same side of the street, were also struck down with the disease.

The usual procedure was to transport the victims to either the Alfred or Melbourne Hospitals by train. Under its regulations, the railways required notice of the transfer and payment for the cost of fumigating the carriage afterwards.

However, as one man was too sick to give the notice and had no money, the railways refused to transfer him. Instead he had to go to the Alfred Hospital via a spring cart. “The man died in consequence of the jolting he received.” the Telegraph newspaper reported in April, 1887.

The Lilydale Express was quick to point out that inadequate drainage was largely to blame and called on the Council to immediately initiate a drainage scheme for the town. The paper also called on the people to attend to

“the cleanliness of their dwellings and premises by seeing to the drainage of backyards, preventing the accumulation of stagnant water and by especial care to prevent the pollution of drinking water in underground tanks. One fruitful source of danger may now be obviated by taking advantage of the night cart system established by the shire.”

A report in 1898 by Dr Kilpatrick, the local health officer, gives some insight into the possible sources of pollution of the creek:

  • Water was deviated from the creek to Cave Hill and returned to the creek “suffering little in the way of pollution”;
  • The Chinese market gardeners south of the three chain road (now Melba Avenue), who irrigate their gardens by drawing water from the creek. The surplus returns to the creek;
  • Boys using one of two spots south of Main Street for bathing. (This was not allowed by the shire as this is where the town’s water was drawn from);
  • The tannery north of Main Street which drew about 2000 gallons (9,000 litres) of water a week which returned to the creek near the gasworks;

The need for a drainage scheme was recognized but the council’s finances limited. One councillor suggested there should be one channel for sewerage and another for pure water.

(Lilydale Express January 28, 1898 pg 2)

It took another few years for the shire to create a town water supply – using water from the Olinda Creek but higher upstream near the present Silvan Dam, well away from potential pollution.

Floods Cause Havoc

A glance at John Hardy’s survey map of Lilydale in 1860 shows the meandering course of the Olinda Creek through the township area.

When homes and shops were built on the lower west side, it was only a matter of time before flooding occurred.

It appears that in the early days, some flooding occurred most years. However, it seems the worst floods were in 1863, 1889 and 1891.

Some of the major floods in the 20th century occurred in 1901, 1920s, 1937, 1952 and as recently as 1984.

There is little information on the 1863 floods which started in Melbourne on December 14, as the area was mostly undeveloped farming and the major focus was on Melbourne where the Yarra River flooded many properties.

(The Argus various issues from December 14, 1863)

In 1891, heavy rain and the collapse of a large dam in South Wandin at a sawmill operated by a Mr Davis threatened lives of the people in Lilydale as the water rose so quickly.

The 1889 floods

Floods hit Lilydale early in July 1889. George White’s coach building premises on the corner of William and Main streets had several feet of water flowing through it as did his home and those of several adjoining residents.

(Lilydale Express July 3, 1889 pg 3)

“The floods which were so high in the lower parts of Lilydale on Tuesday last have now receded. A good stream of water is still flowing down the Olinda Creek, but not nearly so great as on Tuesday.”

(Lilydale Express July 6, 1889 pg 2)

Shire of Lillydale Engineer reported on July 31, 1889:

During the early part of the present month a severe flood occurred, fortunately doing comparatively little damage to the works throughout the shire, but productive of considerable inconvenience to many of the inhabitants, more especially to those in the lower part of the town of Lilydale. I have examined the locality with the view to discover the cause of the flooding of the lower part of the town, and find that it arises chiefly from the overflow of the Olinda Creek in the neighbourhood of the Chinaman’s garden, joined to the water from the return race on Mr Mitchell’s Cave Hill property. The obstruction of the channel through the properties on the south side of Main Street – for which the owners or occupiers are responsible – and the obstruction caused by the small bridge near Mr White’s (south-east corner of Main and William streets) and the railway bridge.

To obviate a reoccurrence of the flooding I would suggest that a channel be cut to intercept the overflow of the Olinda Creek in Mr Mitchell’s property, and continued through the township to the railway bridge below the gasworks. Were this done, and the channel of sufficient dimensions, no flooding would occur in the lower part of town. In addition to this and as a measure of precaution, I would increase the waterway of the bridge near Mr White’s, and clear the waterway of the railway bridge, and also clear out and widen the drain between Main street and the Duck Swamp road. There is ample fall from the south to the north side of Main street (3.77ft) to draw off the water and prevent flooding on the east side of the railway if the channel is made wide enough , and the west side would be relieved to a great extent by the widening of the channel to the Duck Swamp road.

(Shire Engineer’s report Lilydale Express July 31, 1889)

Lilydale Flood 1891

Lilydale Express report July 17, 1891 pg 2:

LILYDALE Since the year 1863 the township of Lilydale has not been invaded with such a flood as that which occurred on Saturday night and Sunday last. On Friday night rain commenced falling about 11 o’clock, and continued almost without intermission till Sunday midday. About
4pm on Saturday the Olinda Creek, which had been taxed to the full extent of its carrying capacity during the day, overflowed its banks, and soon the low lying flats of the Cave Hill property and other low lying parts of the land adjacent to the township were partly submerged. The residents in that portion of Main street, near the railway station, who were most likely to suffer by this incident did not feel any serious alarm. The water continued to rise until at 10pm it was running at a rapid rate over a large portion of the footpath on the south side of the street. Even up to this time not serious apprehension of approaching danger was felt by those most deeply interested. About 11.30pm Messrs Joy, Keddell and Sampson wended their way to the lower end of Main street, ostensibly for the purpose of awaiting the arrival of the last rain from the city. They noticed the rapid rising of the water, and it was decided to watch events. On going to Mr Kay’s shop they found that that gentlemen was on the alert, and Messrs Joy and Keddell proceeded to the station, and warned the officials of the rising of the waters.

While there cries of distress were heard.

The two gentlemen ran along the railway line as far as Mr J. Campbell’s residence where a bright light was burning. In response to their calls, Mrs Campbell asked for assistance. This was readily given and on inquiry it was ascertained that Mr Campbell had gone to seek assistance. Mr Joy then went to procure a vehicle to remove the family as the rapid flow of the flood waters made things unpleasant. During his absence Mr Campbell returned and assisted by Mrs Campbell and Mr Keddell, made every preparation for removal. The two gentlemen then warned Messrs G.R. White and F. Wenker of the danger, but both parties were prepared. Mr Joy then returned, being unable to obtain a vehicle, so Mr Campbell decided to remove his family with- out delay. This was done by the three gentlemen already named, and Mr H. Callander who had joined the party. The water was still rapidly rising, and the current becoming stronger, so that the work was carried out with great risk. Mr Baker had put in an appearance on horseback and a move was made to the residence of Mr G.R. White, President of the Lilydale Shire, where Mrs White and her sister Miss Lander were waiting to be removed. They were placed on horseback and brought safely to dry land. Constable Don now appeared and assumed command of the rescuers, while Sergeant Waters attended to the rescued. After seeing everything was safe the party went toward Wenker’s. While on the way there a miraculous escape from drowning occurred by Mr White. He was engaged in crossing the dangerous drain between his shop and private residence when by some means he missed his footing and was carried some distance by the cur- rent. He, however, managed to reach the bank and safety but in a very exhausted condition. The rescue party, after turning into John street, had a hard fight to reach Mr Wenker’s house for the current came sweeping down with terrific force. From this till 4am Constable Don provides a tower of strength to the party, for during the hours mentioned he bravely performed some noble and dangerous work. After rescuing this family from their very perilous position the party re- traced their steps to Main street. While on their way they were joined by Railway Porter Byrnes, who immediately plunger boldly into the rushing water and right gallantly took his place by his comrades. On reaching Mr Kay’s shop the party received a valuable acquisition in Dr Kilpatrick and Messrs Buckland. It was found that Mr and Mrs Kay were fully prepared for removal but the water was too high for them to venture out, there being about 2ft of water in the shop. A buggy was prepared from Messrs Poyner Bros’ stables and by this means Mrs Kay and the children were conveyed to a place of safety.

After some time it was decided to remove the inhabitants of Mrs Gray’s boarding house, but a place of refuge had to be found. It was finally decided to house them at the railway station till daylight. Mr E. Supple and E. Poyner arrive on horseback and gave assistance. Here it was that Constable Don, Dr Kilpatrick and Porter Byrnes did splendid work in removing Mrs and Miss Gray to the railway station. After passing the gate Porter Byrnes was seized with cramps and had to be carried out of the water by other members of the party. After seeing the rescued com- fortable the party returned to Mr J. Wood tailor, and endeavoured to get him to leave his house. Mr Wood had erected a temporary stretcher on the shop counter and was safely ensconced beneath some bedclothes. He refused to leave, and eventually had to seek refuge in the ceiling.

An immense amount of damage was caused by the floods on Saturday at the local railway station. At 8am on Sunday the water was flowing in a fierce current about five feet deep over the gates at the entrance to the station yard, and it seemed as though any attempt to reach the offices could not be made till the waters subsided. However, a way was discovered about half a mile lower down by which the station could be reached with extreme difficulty, owing to the torrents of water that were flowing over the road in several places. Arriving there the whole of the yard was seen to be entirely submerged, the rails being about two feet under water, torrents of which were pouring over the lower part of the platform and roaring and tossing in turbulent streams. Between the platforms the noise of which, combined with that of the wind and rain, was nearly deafening. All kinds of articles were floating about here and there, ladders, sign-boards, huge logs, barrels, and even a portable out-house was seen bobbing about on the water and in the midst of all of this confusion the semaphore was observed displaying the “all right signal” (this being caused by the great stream on the wires as if in mockery). Mr F.W. Waters, assistant stationmaster, succeeded in getting to the station, and wired the authorities at Princes Bridge and Spencer street to suspend all traffic till further notice.

As the waters receded it was seen that the embankment near the level crossing had been washed away for a distance of two chains, the rails attached to the sleepers forming a frail suspension bridge and the water flowing freely below. At Mooroolbark the rails were covered to a depth of two or three feet. At Coldstream some of the ballast was washed away, and in several places the bridges were in imminent danger. A large stack of wood, that was in the station yard, had almost entirely disappeared. Early on Monday morning the work of repairing began. After Coldstream and Mooroolbark had been seen to, attention was turned to the worst break of all, the one near the level crossing. The respective gangers, with their gangs and all the available outside labourers, with drays were put on, ballast being carted from the station yard. While the work of filling in was going on arrangements were made for trains to run at intervals on each side of the break to convey passengers, mails. Etc. During the afternoon a ballast train was run out at the request of the officials, and the work of repair was greatly expedited thereby, and the embankment soon showed signs of a second growth. By 11pm the track was clear, and a passenger train passed safely over it on her way to the metropolis, laden with passengers, milk, mail etc. On Tuesday night passenger trains ran from Melbourne to Healesville, with no goods. The ordinary running was resumed on Wednesday.

(Lilydale Express July 17, 1891 pg 2)

It will be remembered that during the recent floods the bridge adjacent to the Lilydale railway station was swept away. As soon as the waters subsided the bridge was brought back up, but up to the present it has not been placed in its proper position. This caused considerable annoyance to all having to do business at the station, as they have to go round by the roadway to get to the entrance. A quantity of debris has also accumulated on the footpath between the Olinda Hotel and the railway gates. It has been allowed to remain in this spot for over a week, and, the smell arising there from is not of the sweetest. As this is the principal main entrance to the town it is to be hoped that those in authority will have these matters attend to immediately.

(Lilydale Express July 24, 1891 pg 2)

Since our last issue went to press it transpired that there were many besides those we named
who did heroic service in rescuing families at the critical period of the flood. Amongst those who were not named but deserve the highest praise for their efforts and good work were Mr R.T. Kings, Mr R. Morton senr., Mr T. Williams, Mr Wm. Willcox, Mr J. McGhee, Mr J. Poyner, Mr
W. Hill and Mr R. Keenan. Messrs Williams, McGhee and J. Poyner brought out their horses and vehicles, and put them in the flood to good purpose, saving many families. Mr T. Williams housed and fed many of the wet and homeless ones both at his residence in Castella street and above his shop in Main street. Cr Kings worked in the flood like a Trojan, and saved several persons from midstream who otherwise likely would have found a watery grave. It is possible that others did good work during the memorable night, but their names have not yet come under our notice.

The WCTU raised more than £5/15 plus food and clothing for victims.

(Lilydale Express July 24, pg 2)


Most of the residents near the Lilydale Railway Station have suffered damage more or less, and some very heavily. Mr G. R. White and Mr Kay are among those who have suffered most severe- ly. Great damage was done to Mr Kay’s paints, colours, and stock, Mr White’s furniture, piano, and books were greatly damaged, and he thinks 150 pounds would cover his loss. It is estimated that 300 pounds will not cover the damage done in the lower portion of Lilydale. Most of the land owners between Lilydale and Yarra Glen have sustained losses, especially Colonel Hutton, Cr Kerr, Mr Parfait, Mr J. Black, Mr Gilbert Macintyre, Mr Simpson and Mr Upton. All lost a great deal of fencing and others not named lost smaller amounts. Cr Kerr and Cr Macintyre lost between 20 and 30 head of valuable cattle each. It is probable that the Shire President, had he
not had such a heavy loss himself, would have called a public meeting, to obtain a fund to relieve those who have suffered through the flood, but it would not look well for him to do so under the circumstances. Some other prominent public men ought to take his place for this purpose.


There is a rumour that certain of the owners of property on the flats on each bank of the Running Creek intend to sue the Shire Council for allowing the water wheel and stones to be placed in the creek at Hand’s tannery. It is alleged that the waterwheel and stones interfered with the flow of water down the creek, and contributed to the inundation of the town. It is also rumoured that certain residents intend to bring an action against the Railway Commissioners for not providing for flood waters near the railway crossing. It is alleged that the railway should have been placed on a bridge, and that the embankment kept back the water.

(Lilydale Express July 24, 1891)

A fact has just been revealed to us which explains the sudden and rapid rise of the flood waters in the lower part of Lilydale between one and two o’clock last Sunday morning week. At mid- night the dam in South Wandin, used formerly for Mr E. Clegg’s sawmill, and latterly by Mr David, broke loose, and allowed all the water that was back up to escape through Mooroolbark and Lilydale. The dam was 50 feet deep at the embankment and ran tapering backwards for two or three miles. The logs and the trees of which the embankment was made had become rotten, and the large and sudden accession of water made them give way. This breakaway of storage water caused the sudden rise in the torrent that flooded Lilydale, and rendered rescue of many families speedily necessary.

(Lilydale Express July 24, 1891)


Mr T.G. Collings wrote drawing attention to the loss sustained by the president through the floods, and thought the council should await the Railway Commissioners to see if some relief could not be granted.

The president said the railway embankment near his house backed up the flood waters, and when the embankment gave way, the water fell 2 feet in an hour. Not only the householders in the vicinity of the station had suffered, but the ratepayers generally and the council, for the roads
had to be repaired. He thought a pipe culvert should take the place of the embankment.

Cr Kings concurred and moved that a deputation wait upon the Railway Commissioners to request them to do something in the matter.

Cr Baker seconded the motion which was carried unanimously.

(Council meeting report, Lilydale Express July 31, 1891).

During August, the councils of Upper Yarra and Lillydale Shires went on a deputation to the Minister of Public Works on the Woori Yallock bridge which had been washed away, the Lilydale flood and the land slip.

The deputation was led by Mr E. Cameron, M.L.A.

Lilydale Flood
Cr White said if it were not out of place he would like to ask Mr Wheeler a question . The lower portion of the town of Lilydale was subject of floods, and one of his (Cr White’s) colleagues had reported to him that if the creek were widened and deepened, say half-a-mile on the south side of the town, the flood waters could be diverted through the town at a higher level, and thereby prevent the inundation of the town. The question he wished to ask was, if the council could at any time see its way clear to undertake this work, would the Government give some assistance? If the work were done, it would do a great deal to enhance the value of property in that part of the town. Many people might think that he looked on this from a personal standpoint, as he was one of the heaviest sufferers by the late flood, but such was not the case. He did not wish top see the property decrease in value as the shire would suffer.
Mr Wheeler said it would not be right for him to make any promises, and he certainly would not do so this year.
The Minister said the application seemed a very reasonable one, and he felt certain that if ever it was brought before the Government some assistance would be given.

(Lilydale Express August 21, 1891).

The secretary of the Melbourne Flood Relief Committee wrote asking for full particulars of the loss of furniture, wearing apparel, stock-in-trade, tools, property (buildings etc.); also the occupations and position of the applicants, extent of income, number in family, and the amount recommended to be paid to each. This information was necessary in order to enable the committee to decide upon a scheme for the distribution of the fund.
He asked for the above particulars to be supplied with regard to any claim which might be made by residents of the district.
The Secretary said he had forwarded the application of Le Hoy and Le Sing to the Melbourne Floods Relief Committee. One claimed 500 pounds and the other 600 pounds, but he considered that both claims were really one. He had not received any other applications. Le Hoy communicated with Sergeant Waters, who communicated with the Chinese interpreter, who sent up a form a claim. This form he (Mr Paul) filled in, and returned to Melbourne. Action of secretary endorsed.

(Council meeting report, August 28, 1891).

The chairman of the board, Mr Hodgkinson said in part: it had been notices that the flood of 1863 was about 4 ft higher than the flood of 1891 at Yering, 6ft higher at Warrandyte and 1ft higher on the widely spreading alluvial flats between Heidelberg and Templestowe.

(Lilydale Express, October 2, 1891)

The Lilydale Claims
The secretary of the Shire of Lilydale has received the following:-
Town Hall, Melbourne
12th October, 1891
Dear Sir – Herewith I forward list showing amounts which have been passed for payment by the Central Committee of the above fund to claimants from the Lilydale district with a cheque for the total thereof, viz., 135 pounds.
The instruction of the Central Committee is that all amounts not claimed in 14 days are to lapse into the general fund. Will you therefore, be good enough to return me the receipted list with cheques for any monies not claimed at the expiration of that time
Yours faithfully,
John Clayton
Honorary Secretary

The amounts received by Mr Paul for distribution are as follows:- Lee Hoy, market gardener, Lilydale (tenant of Colonel Hutton’s) 50 pounds; Lee Sing, market gardener, Lilydale (tenant of Mr D. Mitchell’s) 10 pounds; Geo. B. White, Gruyere, 10 pounds; William Jeeves, South Mooroolbark, 15 pounds; William J. Richards, South Mooroolbark, 20 pounds. The tow last names claimants were at the landslip. A portion of the slip went over Mr Richard’s garden.
Julia Wenker, Lilydale, has just sent in a claim for 10 pounds and James Larking, market gardener, Lilydale one for 25 pounds. All claims have been forwarded by Mr Paul to the Floods Committee. It is notified that no further claims will be recognised.
Cr G.R. White and Mr R. Rigaldi, who suffered as much as anyone by the flood, have not sent in any claims.
It is reported that Mr David Mitchell allowed Lee Sing, his tenant, 50 pounds off his rent, which is about a third of his year’s rent. In cases near the Lilydale Station, where the houses flooded were occupied by tenants, the landlords have allowed something off the rent.

(Lilydale Express, October 2, 1891)


In the lower part of the township of Lilydale considerable damage has been done to property, and steps would be taken to prevent a recurrence of the inundation by the construction of an intercepting channel at a higher level.
On the main Melbourne road, the bridge over Brushy creek has suffered damage. It has been repaired, and the road is at present safe for traffic, but the timbers of the bridge are rotten, and the structure may collapse at any moment. The erection of a new bridge is an imperative necessity to prevent accident.
I have inspected the locality of the landslip on the north side of the Dandenong Ranges. About half a mile of Jeeves road has been covered with debris of the larger slip, and at several points further up the hill, the road has been rendered impassable. From the lower corner of Dick’s paddock, for a distance of about 38 chains, the road might be formed on the surface of the debris, it being now dry and hard enough to bear up the traffic. Several stumps and one tree would have to be grubbed up, but not much cutting is required. From this point the principal repairs required would be the construction of crossings at the points where the road had been carried away by the minor slip along the route. I am given to understand that a proposal or proposals for carrying out the work of repairing the road will be made to the council by those living in and interested in the locality, but of their nature I am not aware.

(Council meeting report, Lilydale Express October 16, 1891)

Work on Jeeves Road at the landslip South Mooroolbark has been completed and the road is now in very good condition. The cost was very moderate, viz., 53 pounds 3 shillings for labour and materials and the men employed have done their work very creditably.

(Council meeting report, December 11, 1891)

Immediately, the council started pressuring the government for funds to widen and deepen the channels south of the town or even divert the water through another part of town. But the cost and who was to pay stopped any real resolution of the issue.

Chinese Market Gardeners

From the early days of settlement Chinese market gardeners farmed the rich alluvial flat of the Olinda Creek and grew vegetables for local consumption and sale in Melbourne.
The great flood of 1891 showed the extent of their gardens when they filed for compensation over the loss of their crops:

The Chinese Gardeners and the Flood
Lee Sing, Chinese Gardener, residing on a portion of Mr D. Mitchell’s property, Lilydale submitted an account of the losses sustained by him during the recent heavy floods, which amounted to about 500 pounds. He lost about 3500 cabbages, 1500 cauliflowers, six acres of peas, one acre of parsnips, quarter an acre of celery and half an acres of young plants. They were all washed away by the flood. There were 12 tons of bone dust on the land valued at 6 pounds a tone, and this also was washed away. Any assistance the council could render him in his present distress would be gratefully accepted.
The President: He has lost a good lot, but we cannot do anything.
Cr Rawlings: Send him a reply that we are sorry, owning to our poverty, we cannot do anything at present. This was agreed to.

(Lilydale Express Council meeting report, July 31, 1891).

Another Chinese Request
Lee Sing Chang wrote that he had suffered damage to the tune of 600 pounds and he would be thankful for any help the council could give him.
It was agreed that the secretary inform him that he was on the wrong track and that he should apply to the Floods Relief Committee.

(Lilydale Express Council meeting report, July 31, 1891)

The Flood
The secretary of the Melbourne Flood Relief Committee wrote asking for full particulars of the loss of furniture, wearing apparel, stock-in-trade, tools, property (buildings etc.); also the occupations and position of the applicants, extent of income, number in family, and the amount recommended to be paid to each. This information was necessary in order to enable the committee to decide upon a scheme for the distribution of the fund.
He asked for the above particulars to be supplied with regard to any claim which might be made by residents of the district.
The Secretary said he had forwarded the application of Le Hoy and Le Sing to the Melbourne Floods Relief Committee. One claimed 500 pounds and the other 600 pounds, but he considered that both claims were really one. He had not received any other applications. Le Hoy communicated with Sergeant Waters, who communicated with the Chinese interpreter, who sent up a form a claim. This form he (Mr Paul) filled in, and returned to Melbourne. Action of secretary endorsed.

(Lilydale Express Council meeting report, August 28, 1891)

The Lilydale Claims
The secretary of the Shire of Lilydale has received the following:-
Town Hall, Melbourne
12th October, 1891
Dear Sir – Herewith I forward list showing amounts which have been passed for payment by the Central Committee of the above fund to claimants from the Lilydale district with a cheque for the total thereof, viz., 135 pounds.
The instruction of the Central Committee is that all amounts not claimed in 14 days are to lapse into the general fund. Will you therefore, be good enough to return me the receipted list with cheques for any monies not claimed at the expiration of that time.
Yours faithfully,
John Clayton
Honorary Secretary

The money included payments to Lee Hoy and Lee Sing.
The amounts received by Mr Paul for distribution are as follows:- Lee Hoy, market gardener, Lilydale (tenant of Colonel Hutton’s) 50 pounds; Lee Sing, market gardener, Lilydale (tenant of Mr D. Mitchell’s) 10 pounds.
Most claimants received £10.
It is reported that Mr David Mitchell allowed Lee Sing, his tenant, 50 pounds off his rent, which is about a third of his year’s rent. In cases near the Lilydale Station, where the houses flooded were occupied by tenants, the landlords have allowed something off the rent.

(Lilydale Express, October 16, 1891)

Poon Kee
Although he arrived a few years later, Poon Kee became a fixture to the people of Lilydale and Gun Alley in particular.
He told everyone he arrived at Lilydale in July 1909.
He set up a green grocer’s shop on the south side of Main Street in Robert Black’s building which was then closest to the Olinda Creek. He grew his vegetables along the west side of the creek and behind his shop along John Street and also at other locations such as Gardiner and Anderson streets. Whenever the Olinda Creek flooded which was regularly before the late 1930s, his crops were wiped out.

In September 1918 when the Olinda Creek recorded its highest flood in 27 years, Poon Kee’s was well under water and the flood ran right through Mr Beddoe’s house between the two branches of the Olinda Creek.

The 1937 floods did not spare poor old Poon Kee.

“Poon Kee’s garden suffered considerably, and the flood went on the swirl about the doorway of his shop…”

(Lilydale Express October 22, 1937)

Floodwaters again destroyed his market garden. It struck in December 1934:

“Poon Kee was almost in tears when he witnessed the havoc wrought in his vegetable garden.”

(Lilydale Express December 7, 1934)

According to his death certificate he was born in Canton, China the son of Hoong Poon. His mother was unknown. When he was 20 Kee married at Chung War and they had one child Ah Jun Poon who was deceased at the time of Kee’s death in 1943. The name of his wife was unknown.
Poon Kee was unwell on Saturday, May 2 and sadly was found dead in his shop fellow shopkeeper Ern Oliver the following day. Dr Mahon recorded the cause of death as pneumonia which occurred on May 2, 1943. He was 68 years old. He was interred in the Chinese section of the Fawkner Cemetery on May 5.

He had been in Victoria since 1899 and in Lilydale since July 1909 when he rented the shop and premises from Robert Black.

In early years he would travel back home to China but he had lived and worked in his shop without a break for 23 years prior to his death.
After his death, his store’s produce and worldly goods were gathered up and taken to the Lilydale Police Station where they were auctioned off. The proceeds from the sale paid for his funeral and the rest was sent to his family in China.
Like many other children of the town, Ruby Kwijas remembers Poon Kee quite clearly.

In winter when walking along Hutchinson and Main streets, Ruby “would say ‘good morning’ to Poon Kee at his shop, his usual reply was ‘Luby go to see her Glanmother’ (which I often did as Gran Walker (my mum’s mum) lived near the school in Castella Street.”

(Reminiscences of Life Volume 1 pg 29)

Flooding continues

While most years saw the Olinda Creek swollen, major flooding occurred in 1901, 1918, 1923, 1927, 1931, 1934 and 1937.

1901 Flood

In 1901 the low-lying parts of town were covered with four to five feet of water.

(Lilydale Express April 26, 1901)


If patience is a virtue, then people of Lilydale should be the most virtuous on the face of the earth, and especially those who reside in the flat near the railway station. How they can live from year to year subject to the risk of life and limb and loss of property from floods without making an outcry that would wake up the council and the Government to a clear conception of their responsibility to make a proper provision for carrying off the storm waters which visit us so regularly at short intervals, is a mystery, and an evidence of patient sufferances and endurance. We have not every year a flood like that of 1891, when Dr Kilpatrick and the still taller police constable were engaged all the wet and stormy night for fully six hours out wading through nearly six feet of water to rescue those who had failed to escape from their houses before the storm waters had hemmed them in. But even this year the recent flood was deep and destructive enough to call for immediate remedial measures.

There were no floods in Lilydale until the Government sold a large portion of the natural bed of the creek for private enterprise, thus completely blocking up the way and diverting the flow into private channels, which are too restricted for the volume of water in the rainy season to get away. Lilydale has now no natural creek whatever within the township limits. The private drain cut by the late Mr John Hutchinson, a former president of the shire, is what we have almost solely to depend on instead, and although each year this drain has gradually increased in depth, this does not compensate for the absence of width, and hence our periodic winter floods so inimical
to the progress of the western portion of the town and dangerous to the stability of the railway bridges and embankments both sides of and close to the railway station.

Cr Taylor, the president of the shire, in the interests of the ratepayers, would do well to arrange for a deputation of shire councillors and others to wait upon the Government and ask for a special grant for widening and straightening the private drain referred as a substitute for the creek, of which we have been deprived by Government malfeasance. Preparatory to this, the president and the councillors for the North-western Riding should inspect the creek so as to be in a position to point out the needed improvements, and if the council were to authorize the shire engineer to make a survey of the necessary deviations and an estimate of the cost of making a creek or creeks, it might facilitate the work of the deputation when approaching the Government for a special grant, or in asking that it be done by day labor at the expense of the Public Works department.

If the sharp corner was taken off Mr Rodgers paddock and the creek widened from Main street to the railway bridge on the north side of the station, there would be no more floods in Lilydale, and a few pounds spent on the waterway underneath the railway at the corner of Mr Wesble’s blacksmith shop and onward to the excavation on the west side at the end of the goods shed, would make the railway line perfectly safe. At the same time the Government should be asked to buy back from the gas company that portion of their property which fronts Main Street on the east of the house and shop occupied by Mr Cox and back to the enclosures round the gasometer and Mr Earl’s house. This land is of no use to the gas company beyond the few pounds a year they get for the grass. An acre or two, at least, of this might be resumed for park land at a reasonable price, and if handed over to and vested in the council, it would facilitate the carrying out of a scheme for public gardens and reserves in conjunction with the vacant land at the back. If Mr Kings, a senior councillor, would take these matters in hand along with the president, who has repeatedly reminded his brother councillors of the need for making the town attractive, Lilydale would shortly be in a position to boast a fine lake and a public park.

(Lilydale Express June 14, 1901)

In September 1918 when the Olinda Creek recorded its highest flood in 27 years, the townspeople saw an unusual sight: the Main street in places was transformed into a sea of water. Residents were forced to abandon their homes and the three branches of the Olinda Creek had joined forces and were “one muddy torrent”.

(Lilydale Express September 6, 1918)

On October 10, 1923 the flood waters rose rapidly in the main street:

“in less than two hours there was three feet of water roaring across the footpath near the rail- way ramp which, for the once, answered the purpose of a solid breakwater.”

In John Street some homes had more than two feet of water running through their homes.

(Lilydale Express October 19, 1923)

In October 1927 it again rained and again flooded.

(Lilydale Express October 7, 1927)

Floodwaters again struck in March 1931, again it started on a Saturday night fed by rain that had fallen on the previous Thursday and Friday.

“The creeks overflowed in the late afternoon (Saturday) but in the face of all this residents in John street felt convinced that they would have no cause to worry; but about 10.30 the water began to rise rapidly and flowed through several houses. The main street east and west of the railway gates was awash and considerable damage was inflicted.”

(Lilydale Express March 27, 1931)

Widespread Flood Havoc screamed the front page headline of December 7, 1934:

Many people spent a cheerless time on Friday night. Rendered homeless their thoughts were occupied with what might happen to their homes and belongings.

At Hansen’s Produce Store on the corner of William and Main streets, the water tore through the store and rose above the elevated floor on which the grain was stacked.

The people weren’t helped by the spreading of a rumour on Sunday, two days after the floods that the Silvan dam had burst and later that water in the reservoir on Swansea Road had to be let go. Residents again put up their valuable furniture and prepared for the worst.

(Lilydale Express of December 7, 1934)

Council had been grappling with ways to prevent the flooding and in February 1937 it was announced the council would begin extensive work to widen Olinda Creek.

(Lilydale Express February 19, 1937)

However it wasn’t able to stop another massive flood in October of that year.

Lilydale in Flood Again – the headline says it all as the people of the lower end of Main street prepared for their fate in October 1937.

It started raining heavily on Saturday morning and by Sunday evening most knew they were in for a flood.

“By the time Sunday evening arrived most dwellers in the lower end of Main street and John street were reconciled to their fate; they were in for a flood, they were sure, and consequently most of them made haste to prepare for it. Floor coverings were moved, damageable furniture was placed at a higher level, and portable articles were placed on tables and in other safe spots, leaving the house ready to be abandoned should the occasion warrant it.…”

“The Olinda Creek had overrun its banks the extent of about two feet, and there was a regular cascade down John Street and the south side of Main street. The late Mrs Beddoe’s property was the first to be attacked by the water, which rushed through, more than a foot deep. New residents in that house were forced to leave early.”

(Lilydale Express October 22, 1937)

A boat was used to rescue people.

“The first person to be rescued was Mrs Parsons, a new comer to John street. She evidently did not hear Frank Cunnington’s call, and he was forced to knock down the door to rescue the unfortunate woman. Two of the Shell children were also taken off in the boat.

Some residents would not leave, but others took their own way out and waded through the surging waters.

Hawkey’s and Lombardi’s places, in the early and direct path of the flood, were not invaded. Mostly, water entered the homes further down towards William Street. Altogether about nine families were forced to leave their homes comprising Mr and Mr G. Cunnington, who found refuge in the garage, Mr and Mrs J. Gainey snr., Mr M. Lombardi, Mr and Mrs H. Fish, Mrs E. Parsons, Mr C Peiper, Mrs Chauvin, Mrs Vuarchoz and Mr and Mrs Marr.”

(Lilydale Express October 22, 1937)

At the council meeting later in the month, the Shire Engineer reported that John Street had been repaired at a cost of £20.

(Lilydale Express Shire Engineer’s report October 29, 1937 pg 3)

At its December meeting, the council was advised it had received £17 from the Public Works department for flood damages but didn’t say for where.

(Lilydale Express December 24, 1937)

Drainage channels were built at various times but these did little to prevent widespread flooding after heavy, intense rain.

After the 1937 floods, new channels were dug and most are still visible today. They prevented many floods but the one in 1984 was so severe that it finally forced all levels of government to work together for a solution. The result was the creation of Lillydale Lake.

Building the levees

For years, the shire had carried out minor work to try and stop the flooding of the western part of Lilydale. But it was not until 1937, at the height of the Depression, that funds were available to carry out a proper project with levee banks.
In February 1937 when the Lilydale Express announced:
Widening the Olinda Creek

With the object of minimising the danger from floods at Lilydale, the shire council will shortly commence the extensive work of widening and straightening the Olinda Creek within the precincts of the township. It is proposed to make a waterway thirty feet wide and four feet deep from the Three-chain road right through to the baths. Sustenance labor will be engage on the work which is expected to extend over a period of twelve months.

(Lilydale Express February 19, 1937)

However, it didn’t proceed. The flood of October 1937 prompted more action and resulted in a joint report from the shire of engineer and the Metropolitan Board of Works engineer tabled at the November council meeting.
It’s interesting that in the year to September 30, 1937 the council had received Sustenance grants totalling £8064 and it was proposed to use further money from this fund to build the levee bank and associated works.
The project involved building a levee bank along the western bank of Olinda Creek south of Gippsland Road northwards to council owned land north of Main Street by the Olinda Hotel and then north west to join the railway embankment.

The creek was widened at Main Street and the western branch of the creek was closed except for a small amount of water needed to meet possible water rights.

A new, wider bridge was erected at Main Street.
The levee was constructed of 115 metal piles with 645 concrete slabs to be inserted between the piles. South of Main Street there was 800ft of concrete slabs.

During February 1938, 5400 cubic yards of material have been carted and consolidated into the levee bank. The material was from Cave Hill who also loaned the shire the use of a steam shovel they were using at the time.
The bridge, although part of the project was not without its problems and critics. The steel girder bridge was to be built on wooden piles and span 40ft. the successful tenderer was E. Hardy and the plans were changed slightly to allow an 8ft extension for pedestrian traffic on the south side.
In May and June 1938, Residents and councillors criticised the alignment and design of the bridge as there was a bend in the road created. The engineer relied this was because the bridge had under structure to allow widening of another six feet when funds were available at which time that bend would disappear.
The bridge was completed in June when a two-span footbridge 50ft was built on the north side of the street. By December 1938 the upgrade to the approaches to the bridge had been completed.
The levee banks were completed in July 1938.
The whole project cost £1516/9/9 of which Government grants contributed £1430 (including Employment Relief of £688/6/7.

(Lilydale Express January 6, 1939 pg 4 Statement of Annual Receipts and Expenditure to September 30, 1938)

A further £174/16/12 was received and accounted for in the 1939 annual statement of receipts and expenditure.

(Lilydale Express January 5, 1940)

Today, those works are still in place and visible and protected the town until the disastrous 1984 flood which caused more than $100, 000 damage to homes and businesses.

Linking Across the Creek

John Street from the creek to Hutchinson Street, remained a gravel dead end road nicknamed Gun Alley. Many people wonder why the road east of Olinda Creek is called Hardy Street and the west side John Street.

For the early settlers it wasn’t a problem as there was no causeway across the creek to link the two streets.
John Street was named after John Hutchinson, who owned the land which was subdivided in 1880 to pay off his debts after his sudden death.

Hardy Street was named after John Hardy who surveyed and laid out the township we know as Lilydale.
Once linked, the area started to transform. The road was sealed, homes were demolished to make way for factories and traffic used the roads the avoid driving through the Main Street. Gun Alley had disappeared and now is only remembered by those who lived there.

Hardy Street – John Street. Further work has been carried out on the connection of these two township streets by pipe culvert at Olinda Creek.

(Lilydale Express Shire Engineer’s report May 21, 1969)

Hardy Street has been connected to John Street by means of a floodway at the Olinda Creek. This work started some months ago, has been completed and is now trafficable.

(Lilydale Express Shire Engineer’s report July 24, 1970).

The causeway was formally gazetted as a road on November 23, 1977.

Because it is a causeway, after torrential rain, it is usually impassable. Prior to the building of the Lillydale Lake which opened in 1990 the flood waters would flow freely through the gun Alley homes and join with the drain along the Back Paddock to flood the area from the Olinda Creek across the railway line. Shops and homes were inundated and some had to be rescued. For the residents of Gun Alley, after heavy rain they always prepared for the rising water.

Torrential Tuesday

September 18, 1984

By the 1980s there were many organisations able to help every time Lilydale township flooded, the people were quickly there to lend a hand in true community spirit.
After 103mm of rain fell between 9pm Monday and 9am Tuesday, September 18, 1984, Lilydale knew it was in trouble. By mid morning Tuesday, the Olinda Creek was breaking its banks and businesses were in danger.
Lilydale & Yarra Valley Express reporter Sue Thompson covered the flood:

“Last week’s floods demonstrated the community spirit of Lilydale as hundreds of people, both paid and volunteer mobilised to help those affected by the rising waters.
Several hundred volunteers from emergency services, utility and service clubs pitched in.
Thirty Lilydale SES volunteers worked from Monday 11am until Wednesday 4pm.
Aided by a Dandenong four-wheel drive club which provided six men and two vehicles.
Lillydale Council had 40 to 50 outside staff working until 1am on Wednesday morning and the shire’s switchboards manned until 10.30pm Tuesday night.
Lilydale district SEC had crews working around the clock from Monday until Wednesday, clearing trees from power lines and water from their electrical equipment.
Countless members from local service clubs and individuals turned up at the trouble spots to help.
The threat to Lilydale township quickly bought the Lilydale CFA to town. Regional officer Ron Russell was full of praise from the many volunteers but particularly the Lilydale brigade whose efforts of sandbagging John Street near the Olinda Creek probably saved extensive flooding of the Olive Tree Shopping Centre.
“For men who are trained to cope with fires, the CFA members did a great job in helping with the floods.”
Lilydale traders blame blocked water drains for thousands of dollars damage to their goods.
Shops on the south side of Main St near William St were flooded with 46 centimetres of water at about 7.30 last Tuesday night.
Ian Price Furnishings suffered the greatest loss with damage estimated at $60,000.
Mrs Dorothy Price said furnishings were being moved out the front door from the incoming water but when she turned around she saw water coming in the back door.
Eight businesses were flooded each suffering several thousand dollars damage.
The new proprietors of Sports Store took over the business only three weeks ago.
They spent Wednesday clearing out mud and taking up carpets. Jo Hartley from the dry cleaners said some customers’ clothing and curtains had been damaged and his equipment water damaged.
The Chinese restaurant, recently re-furbished will now need to replace its new carpet.
Insurance assessors were hard at work on Wednesday assessing the damage.
Concerned traders indicated the companies may not pay insurance claims if the damage was caused by rising water, but would probably pay if blocked water drains were found to be the cause of flooding.


(Lilydale & Yarra Valley Express September 25, pgs 1, 4 and 5)

Lillydale Lake

Many people at Brushy Creek were surprised when John Hardy was instructed to lay out an official government town on Running Creek (now Olinda Creek) in 1859. The township was called Lillydale on his 1860 survey maps.
However, the value of Running Creek had been recognised many years earlier.
In the early 1850s City Surveyor James Blackburn was commissioned to survey potential sources to supply water to Melbourne.

His report of January 9, 1851 said he visited a tributary of the Yarra which was delivering 2,120 gallons (approx. 9600 litres) per minute, which is a quantity rather greater than required for Melbourne’s in the “Corhan Warrabul range and flows into the Yarra near the run of Messrs. Gardiner and Fletcher, producing water of the finest quality. It is a permanent stream, and at the time I saw it (a period of long drought).”
James Blackburn said the stream could be intercepted at the base of the range and taken to Richmond by an aqueduct which would be about 22 to 25 miles (33 to 40kms) long. The site James Blackburn was talking about was believed to be the current site of Lillydale Lake.

However it was to be another 130 years before the Shire of Lillydale and Melbourne Metropolitan Board of Works joined forces to create the Lillydale Lake.

As with the building of the levees in 1937-38, the timing was perfect. The lake’s creation followed a flood that caused extensive damage caused to homes and businesses and was at a time when funds were available from outside sources to do the works.

However, a few years earlier, as in 1937, the shire looked at various projects.
In 1969 there was a plan to create a 160-acre park covering most of the lake site. Other proposals followed until 1976 when the council announced plans for a 28ha lake for flood control and recreation. However, at a cost of $1.5m, financial assistance from the Victorian Government was sought in 1979 but failed.

The turning point came in January 1984 when responsibility for drainage and water supply was transferred from the council to the Melbourne Metropolitan Board of Works. The urgency of works was obvious later in the year with the September inundation of Main Street. Forty-five residential, commercial and community properties were flooded, prompting calls for urgent action.

In June 1985, the Minister for Water Resources met with the shire and MMBW to consider the lake proposal which combined flood mitigation works for the township with recreational opportunities.
The parkland of the lake has been developed and funded by the shire with additional funding from the Australian Bicentennial Authority and the Minister for Sport and Recreation.

The lake covers 28ha with depths of up to 3m and cost about $2m.
Construction of the lake began in May 1988 and was completed in June 1989. The lake and park were officially opened on July 7, 1989.

Key features:
Lake covers 28ha and has a maximum depth of 3m;
The earthen embankment is 7m high and 440m long;
An emergency spillway will operate on average once every 100 years;
Two 1800 x 1200 mm box culvert outlets pass through the embankment into a stilling basin;
Two islands were created of 1ha and 2ha;
The Olinda Creek flows through extensive wetlands;
The historic Cashin’s Mill has been preserved;
Sandy beaches

Today, the Lilydale Lake attracts thousands of visitors annually – families, children, fishers, canoeists, walkers, runners and those who just want to sit and look.

(Ref: Shire of Lillydale reports and brochures)

Lilydale’s First Industry – Cashin’s Flour Mill

Sited beside the now Lillydale Lake is the ruins of Cashin’s Flour Mill which is believed to be Lilydale’s first industry.
The two storey stone mill was built by Hugh Kneen of Fitzroy, in the early 1850’s and was designed to cater for the then flourishing wheat farmers such as John Lithgow and David Blair.

Water was diverted from the Olinda Creek along a race to the large waterwheel which provided the power to turn the grinding stones.
James Cashin, his wife and family moved to Lilydale and started operating the mill. Cashin had previously worked on flour mills in the Geelong district.

For the farmers, the opening of the mill meant they did not have to make the long journey by bullock dray to get their produce ground in Melbourne.
However, by 1863, floods, rain and little sun and rust struck the cereal crops leaving little to harvest.
During the next few years, small quantities of wheat was grown but the wheat farming era of the district was finished and so was the mill.

The Cashins remained in Lilydale, and after James’ death in 1873, his sons James Teare and William took over the mill and also started a saw mill on the site.
However, the family was looking to greener pastures and in the late 1870’s took up land at Lower Tarwin.

After a few years, the saw mill ceased and the building remained empty until it was destroyed by fire in 1915.

Yesterday (Thursday) afternoon one of the relics of the early days of Lilydale, the old flour mill on Mr D. Mitchell’s property at the rear of the township, was destroyed by fire. The fire brigade and a large number of residents turned out, but no water being available, nothing could be done to extinguish the flames, and the stone walls only now remain. The cause of the outbreak is unknown.

(Lilydale Express Friday, March 26, 1915 pg 2)

Since then, the mill has stood silent and gradually collapsing in on itself, but it still remains today as a symbol to the wheat farming era of Lilydale.

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